Strategi Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
Teaching Strategies for Higher Order Thinking Skills
Lessons involving higher order thinking skills require particular clarity of communication to reduce ambiguity and confusion and improve student attitudes about thinking tasks. Lesson plans should include modeling of thinking skills, examples of applied thinking, and adaptations for diverse student needs. Scaffolding (giving students support at the beginning of a lesson and gradually requiring students to operate independently) helps students develop higher order learning skills. However, too much or too little support can hinder development. Useful learning strategies include rehearsal, elaboration, organization, and meta cognition. Lessons should be specifically designed to teach specific learning strategies. Direct instruction (teacher-centered presentations of information) should be used sparingly. Presentations should be short (up to five minutes) and coupled with guided practice to teach sub skills and knowledge. Teacher- and/or student-generated questions about dilemmas, novel problems, and novel approaches should elicit answers that have not been learned already. Sincere feedback providing immediate, specific, and corrective information should inform learners of their progress.
Rujukan: Teaching strategies for HOTs
- Learning and Thinking Strategies
- Team Activities
To reduce the risks of ambiguity and confusion and improve student attitudes about thinking tasks
- Factors to consider while planning
- organization of activities,
- clarity of explanations,
- modeling of thinking skills in action, examples of applied thinking,
- feedback on student thinking processes,
- instructional alignment of objectives and activities,
- adaptations for diverse student needs.
- Align learning goals, objectives, content ideas and skills, learning tasks, assessment activities, and materials and aids.
- Establish organized activities and routines
- Prepare a task analysis of the thinking skill to be learned: identify the particular thinking skill to be learned, the prerequisite knowledge and skills, the sequence of related subskills, and the readiness of students to learn (diagnosis of prerequisite knowledge and skills).
- Prepare sample problems, examples, and explanations.
- Prepare questions that go beyond simple recall of factual information to focus on advanced levels of comprehension, such as How? Why? and How well?
- Plan strategies for diagnosis, guidance, practice, and remediation.
- Explain and follow established routines, such as starting on time and following the planned sequence of activities.
- Convey enthusiasm, genuine interest in a topic, warmth, and a businesslike approach with thorough preparation and organization, minimal transition time between activities, clear expectations, and a comfortable, nonthreatening atmosphere.
- Explain the task clearly
- Set goals at the beginning of an assignment.
- Provide examples of finished products.
- Avoid vague, ambiguous terminology such as “might,” “a little more,” “some,” “usually,” and “probably.” These terms suggest disorganization, lack of preparation, and nervousness.
- Introduce tasks with a clear and simple organizing framework such as a diagram, chart, preview, or one paragraph overview. Introduce key concepts and terms before further explanation and study.
- Use questions that focus attention on important information.
- Give emphasis with verbal statements, nonverbal behaviors, repetition, and written signals.
- Make ideas vivid with pictures, diagrams, examples, demonstrations, models, and other devices.
- Give transition signals to communicate that one idea is ending and another is beginning.
- Provide feedback at frequent intervals with a corrective feedback to clarify incorrect or partially incorrect responses.